The History Of Pewter
Brief History of Pewter
Pewter, a term encompassing various alloys of diverse metals in varying proportions, is characterized by its primary constituent: tin. Tin, a pliable and silvery white metal, boasts a density of 7.29 grams per cubic centimeter, a relatively low melting point at 231.88°C (449.38°F), and a high boiling point at 2,625°C (4,757°F).
Tin's history traces back to the Sumerians, who pioneered bronze—an alloy of copper and tin—around 4500 years ago. The earliest known instance of pewter dates back 3500 years and originates from Egypt. Meanwhile, China has a 2000-year-old history of pewter crafting, and Japan's roots in this craft extend approximately 1100 years. Over two millennia ago, Phoenicians traded for tin from Cornwall, a potential factor in the Roman presence in Britain. Even in Roman Britain, small pewter articles were crafted.
Within Europe, noble households and religious institutions began employing pewter plates and hollowware in the 12th and 13th centuries. However, pewter's transition into common households, replacing wooden and bone plates, bowls, and beakers, occurred much later. As the use of pewter grew, guilds emerged to advance the interests of pewter makers, regulate the material's quality, and uphold the craftsmanship.
The proliferation of guilds spanned across Europe, with London's "The Worshipful Company of Pewterers" forming a significant, influential example in 1348. These guilds possessed authority over all facets of the craft, from apprentice training to the composition of pewter itself. Guild members registered "touch marks" to distinguish their creations, unknowingly laying the foundation for their significance in modern collectibles.
Pewter's zenith was in the 17th century, when daily life involved pewter bottles, spoons, eating and serving utensils, as well as items like bleeding bowls, bedpans, and snuffboxes. Taverns utilized pewter mugs and measures, while churches employed flagons, chalices, patens, and baptismal bowls.
The 18th century witnessed the ascent of porcelain and pottery, marking the decline of pewter as tableware. Nonetheless, its decorative application persisted. During the Arts and Crafts Period and Art Nouveau Period, artists and craftsmen harnessed pewter's potential to create splendid works. Presently, pewter endures as a prized material esteemed for its beauty and versatility.